Osteoporosis, or thinning bones, can result in painful fractures. Risk factors for osteoporosis include aging, being female, low body weight, low sex hormones or menopause, smoking, and some medications. Prevention and treatment include calcium and vitamin D, exercise, and osteoporosis medications. 

Did you know there are different types of osteoporosis? While white women are at the greatest risk, the disease does not discriminate. Men and women of all ethnic groups can develop osteoporosis. So can children and teenagers. 

Osteoporosis Risk in Men and Women 

Women experience more rapid bone loss in their 50s than men do. By the time they're both in their late 60s, though, men and women lose bone mass at the same rate. Statistics show that 2 million men have osteoporosis today. Another 12 million are at risk. And one out of every four men over age 50 will break a bone due to osteoporosis. 

When Does a Woman's Risk of Osteoporosis Rise? 

A woman's risk of osteoporosis rises sharply after menopause. This is especially true for white women and Asian women. It's also especially true for women who have small, thin frames. 

What Are the Symptoms of Osteoporosis? 

A person is often not aware that he or she has osteoporosis until a fracture occurs. But there are occasionally symptoms of the disorder. They could include backache, a gradual loss of height and an accompanying stooped posture, or fractures of the spine, wrist or hip.

Osteoporosis Articles

Osteoporosis Treatment: Nutritional Supplement

The incidence of osteoporosis increases with age, and is develops at an earlier age in woman than in men. About 55 % of Americans, women more so than men, are at risk of developing osteoporosis. This disease is characterized by a demineralization of the bones, whichbecome porous and fragile, this causing a higher susceptibility to fractures. 

Bone is largely calcium in nature, and if demineralization were the issue, than common sense would dictate that increasing dietary intake of calcium would arrest, reverse or at least minimize the ravages of this illness. For years, physicians recommended increase in dietary calcium as the principal intervention in this illness. 

It is only now becoming more obvious that calcium intake is but one of many nutritional concerns that must be addressed in order to effectively treat osteoporosis. Many factors, including age, menopausal status, total calcium, vitamin K2 and vitamin D intake, as well as consumption of cigarettes, saturated fats, alcohol, and cola proved to be linked to a lower bone mineral density. 

FACT #1: The human adult requires approximately 200 mg of elemental calcium per day, and if absorption is between 20% and 40%, the nutritional allowance is approximately 1,000 mg per day. Too much calcium causes more immediate problems involving muscle and nerve. These regulatory mechanisms modulate the absorption of calcium. That is, calcium in excess of 1,200 mg or so will cause the body to reduce the percentage absorbed. While this would appear to be wasteful’ of an inexpensive nutrient, the real cost is that the excess calcium competes with absorption of other micronutrients, resulting in poor absorption of these. 

Too much of a good thing is, in fact, a very bad thing. Calcium ingestion in excess of the requisite amount reduces rates of absorption of calcium, thereby limiting the calcium burden in the vascular system. That is, increasing dietary calcium past a fairly modest level actually inhibits the absorption of magnesium and strontium, both essential for development and maintenance of bone. 

FACT #2: Taking a properly balanced mineral supplement minimizes the danger of ‘overdoing it.’ 

FACT #3: Most commercially available vitamin/mineral supplements are worthless because they present the minerals in a poorly absorbed, inorganic form. This is done so that the manufacturer can provide a ‘1-tablet solution’ to fit all of your needs.

Treatment of Osteoporosis with Oral Strontium Citrate

Osteoporosis is a complex medical condition that results in thinning and weakening of bone. Osteoporosis may be defined empirically as the decrease in bone mass density, relative to normal values, at a particular age in life. Resulting in weaker bone, the patient with osteoporosis will have a weakened skeletal system resulting in bone structure that has a higher risk of fracture, this problem of the bone relates to the structural inability to adequately support body weight. Osteoporosis is a systemic skeletal disease characterized by decreased bone mass, weakened bone tissue leading to increased risk of bone fractures. Women can lose up to 20 percent of their bone mass in the five to seven years following menopause, making them more susceptible to osteoporosis.Disease severity is defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) by an individual’s bone mineral density (BMD) compared to mean peak young-adult BMD. Bone mass which is less than 1 standard deviation (SD) from the mean is considered osteopenia, while BMD less than 2.5 SD from the mean is diagnostic for osteoporosis, noting that osteoporosis implies the subject bone is normal in every other aspect, vis a vis osteomalacia, a metabolic disorder resulting in faulty mineral deposition in bone.Osteoporosis can be divided into two arbitrary categories.1. Type I osteoporosis occurs in post-menopausal women, and is due to estrogen deficiency.2. Type II osteoporosis occurs in both men and women (about two times more frequently in women), and is due to aging, and calcium deficiency over many years.Both men and women achieve their "peak bone mass,"that is, greatest bone density, during the third decade of life. Bone mass then steadily decreases with age. Rates of bone density decrease increase in pregnant and lactating women, as the rate of bone loss will temporarily increase due to the increasedcalcium demands of pregnancy or breastfeeding. These effects may be mitigated by the administration of increased dietary intake of calcium.Osteoporosis is a disease in which bones become fragile and become more likely to break (fracture). If not prevented or if left untreated, osteoporosis can progress painlessly until a bone crushes or breaks. These fractures occur most commonly in the hip, spine, and wrist. Any bone can be affected, but of fractures of the spine and hip are of greatest concern. Women are 4 times more likely to develop osteoporosis than are men.In the U.S., 10 million individuals already have this disease. Almost 34 million more are estimated to have low bone mass (density), thereby placing them at increased risk. Eighty percent of those with osteoporosis are women. Of people older than 50 years, 1 in 2 women and 1 in 8 men are predicted to have an osteoporosis-related fracture in their lifetime. The prevalence of osteoporosis among post menopausal white women is 14% in those aged 50-59 years, 22% in those aged 60-69 years, 39% in those aged 70-79 years, and 70% in those aged 80 years and older. Significant risk has been reported in people of all ethnic backgrounds, white and Asian racial groups at a somewhat increased risk.Osteoporosis develops asymptomatically; the first clinical sign can be a sudden back pain resulting from an otherwise minor trauma. After sudden movement, strain, bump, accident or fall a vertebrum may fracture or collapse. It is the wedge shaped compression fracture of the spine that causes the commonly seen spinal deformities, known as 'Dowager's Hump,' kyphosis or stooped posture.Risk Factors of OsteoporosisHistory of fracture after age 50Low bone mass (density).History of fracture in a close relativeFemales are at greater risk than males.Thin/ small frameRisk increases with age.Positive family history for osteoporosis.Estrogen deficiency.Menopause.Total hysterectomy.Abnormal absence of menstrual periods (amenorrhea).Eating disorders including Anorexia Nervosa.Low dietary calcium intake.Vitamin D deficiency.Use of certain medications (corticosteroids, chemotherapy, anticonvulsants, diuretics and others)Low testosterone levels in men and women.An inactive lifestyle.Current cigarette smoking.Excessive use of alcohol.Caucasian and Asians are at the greatest risk, although African Americans and Hispanic Americans are at significant risk as well.Elemental StrontiumStrontium is a naturally occurring element that forms an important function in the formation and maintenance of bone matrix. Strontium wasting can be observed in otherwise healthy individuals. Hair analysis can be performed in persons with osteoporosis or in those persons at risk for the development of osteoporosis, and elevated levels of strontium will be detected. As with many other 'trace minerals,' strontium is, or should be found in our grain. As the fields are cropped repeatedly, strontium, along with zinc, selenium, vanadium, chromium, boron, and the like, are gradually depleted. Replacement of this inexpensive element into our diet can arrest the progression of osteoporosis, and in many persons, actually reverse a good bit of the damage.Strontium is element number 38 of the periodic table of elements. It was discovered in 1808 and was named after Strontian, a town in Scotland. Strontium is one of the most abundant elements on earth, comprising about 0.04 percent of the earth’s crust. At a concentration of 400 parts per million, there is more strontium in the earth’s crust than carbon. Strontium is also the most abundant trace element in seawater, at a concentration of 8.1 parts per million. The human body contains about 320 mg of strontium, nearly all of which is in bone and connective tissue.Because of its chemical similarity to calcium, strontium can replace calcium to some extent in various biochemical processes in the body, including replacing a small proportion of the calcium in hydroxyapatite crystals of calcified tissues such as bones and teeth. Strontium in these crystals imparts additional strength to these tissues. Strontium also appears to draw extra calcium into bones. When rats or guinea pigs are fed increased amounts of strontium, their bones and teeth became thicker and stronger.Treatment of Osteoporosis with StrontiumIn vitro, strontium ranelate has anabolic and anti-resorptive activity in bone, thereby increasing collagen and non-collagen protein synthesis, enhancing pre-osteoblast differentiation, inhibiting osteoclast differentiation, and reducing osteoclast function. Strontium ranelate was shown to enhance pre-osteoblastic cell replication and collagen synthesis in culture without affecting bone mineralization. Studies performed in healthy animals have shown that strontium ranelate not only increases bone mass at various skeletal sites but also improves mechanical properties of femoral, humeral and vertebral bones.The increase in bone density is closely correlated with increases in biomechanical bone strength. Reductions in vertebral fracture were seen in patients with and without prevalent vertebral fracture. Nonvertebral fractures were also significantly reduced. In a subgroup of patients at high risk for hip fracture, there was a significant reduction in hip fracture risk. Strontium ranelate is well tolerated with nausea, diarrhea, headache, and dermatitis more frequent in treated patients only for the first 3 months of therapy. These data suggest that strontium ranelate is a well-tolerated and effective therapy to treat osteoporosis in the postmenopausal patient, reducing vertebral and nonvertebral fracture by a novel dual anti-resorptive and anabolic action on bone.Strontium Ranelate is currently available in Europe for the treatment of osteoporosis. The ranelate salt is being widely used instead of the bisphonates, mentioned below. Found to be twice as effective as Fosamax and Actonel, Strontium will actually reverse many of the effects of osteoporosis.Based on the studies showing that strontium improves bone density in osteoporosis, scientists at the Bone and Cartilage Metabolism Research Unit, University Hospital, Liege, Belgium, hypothesized that strontium might also improve cartilage metabolism in osteoarthritis (OA).8 They performed an in vitro investigation using cartilage-forming cells (chondrocytes) obtained from normal adults and patients with osteoarthritis. Chondrocytes were cultured for 24 to 72 hours with strontium, and Proteoglycan (PG) content was determined—i.e., structural components of cartilage, including hyaluronic acid, glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate. These substances—Proteoglycans, also known as Glycosaminoglycans—are known to decline dramatically with age9 (Fig. 2). The researchers found that strontium strongly stimulated PG production. This suggests a cartilage-growth-promoting effect of strontium, and provides a sound basis for clinical testing of strontium in osteo and other forms of arthritis.In a European study, strontium ranelate (2 g/day) was studied in 5082 postmenopausal women. A highly significant reduction in vertebral fracture risk was demonstrated. These vertebral fractures were reduced by 40% after 3 years, independent of age, initial BMD.Strontium ranelate is a patented strontium salt, currently available in Europe. We pooled data of two large multinational randomized double-blind studies with a population of 5082 (2536 receiving strontium ranelate 2 g/day and 2546 receiving a placebo), 74 years of age on average, and a 3-year follow-up. The treatment decreased the risk of both vertebral (relative risk = 0.60 [0.53-0.69] p < 0.001) and nonvertebral (RR = 0.85 [0.74-0.99] p = 0.03) fractures. The decrease in risk of vertebral fractures was 37% (p = 0.003) in women <70 years, 42% (p < 0.001) for those 70-80 years of age, and 32% (p = 0.013) for those > or = 80 years. The RR of vertebral fracture was 0.28 (0.07-0.99) in osteopenic and 0.61 (0.53-0.70). In 2605 patients, the risk of experiencing a first vertebral fracture was reduced by 48% (p < 0.001). The risk of experiencing a second vertebral fracture was reduced by 45% (p < 0.001; 1100 patients). Moreover, the risk of experiencing more than two vertebral fractures was reduced by 33% (p < 0.001; 1365 patients). This study shows that a 3-year treatment with strontium ranelate leads to antivertebral fracture efficacy in postmenopausal women independently of baseline osteoporotic risk factors.(6)Its effects on bone formation were confirmed as the drug enhanced preosteoblastic cell replication. In the isolated osteoclast, preincubation of bone slices with strontium ranelate-induced dose-dependent inhibition of the bone-resorbing activity of treated rat osteoclast. Strontium ranelate dose-dependently inhibited preosteoclast differentiation. Its effect in postmenopausal women with established osteoporosis was assessed during an international, prospective, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled phase 3 program comparing strontium ranelate 2 g daily with placebo. The 3-year analysis of the phase 3 study, Spinal Osteoporosis Therapeutic Intervention, evaluating the effect of strontium ranelate 2 g/day on vertebral fracture rates, revealed a significant 41% reduction in the relative risk of patients experiencing new vertebral fracture with strontium ranelate over 3 years. A second phase 3 study showed a significant reduction in the relative risk of experiencing a nonvertebral fracture in the group treated with strontium ranelate over 3 years. These results show that strontium ranelate is a new, effective, and safe treatment for vertebral and hip osteoporosis, with a unique mode of action, increasing bone formation and decreasing bone resorption leading to a rebalance of bone turnover in favor of bone formation.Availability and Cost of StrontiumWhile the ranelate salt is not yet available in the United States, strontium is currently available in the form of a citrate salt. The citrate salt may offer advantages over the ranelate salt in that the citrate moiety is not ‘new to nature,’ and the citrate moiety may be useful in and of itself as an anti-oxidant agent.Strontium Citrate is available in the United States in an over-the counter form. Costing as little as $18/month, this treatment of osteoporosis is considerably more affordable than Fosamax and Actonel, and is considerably more effective. The only noticeable side-effect is some minor upset stomach that occurs if the product is taken on an empty stomach. Strontium Citrate can be taken in lieu of the bisphonates and supplemental dietary calcium can be reduced. Strontium should not be taken at the same time of day, as one takes calcium, in that these minerals compete for absorbance in the GI tract.Strontium to Treat Dental CavitiesStrontium also has been shown to reduce the incidence of cavities. In a 10-year study, the United States Navy Dental Service examined the teeth of about 270,000 naval recruits. Of those, only 360 were found to be completely free of cavities. Curiously, 10 percent of those 360 individuals came from a small area around Rossburg, Ohio, where the water contains unusually high concentrations of strontium. Epidemiologic studies have shown that strontium concentrations of 6 to 10 mg/liter in the water supply are associated with a reduced incidence of cavities. Administering these levels of strontium also reduced the incidence of cavities in animal studies.Other Treatment Options in OsteoporosisThere are several available medications used for osteoporosis treatment. These include:1. Bisphosphanates (e.g. Fosamax, Actonel) are chemicals that inhibit bone breakdown through dysregulation of a cellular system involved in the breakdown of bone. This bone turnover, or replacement of old bone with new bone, is a normal process within our body. If patients with osteoporosis replace less new bone as the old bone is broken down, bone mass decreases. Bisphosphanates slow the rate of bone breakdown to help maintain bone mass by inhibiting the osteoclast, the cell line responsible for bone breakdown.2. Calcitonin (Miacalcin) is a naturally occurring hormone that can be given as an injection or taken as a nasal spray. Calcitonin inhibits the function of the cells that breakdown bone, the osteoclasts. The nasal spray has greatly improved the use of calcitonin, and it is much more commonly used today. Calcitonin has been shown to slow bone loss, and also decrease pain associated with osteoporosis fractures.3. Raloxifene is a newer medication that has been developed to provide some of the same advantages of estrogen (HRT), without the potential side-effects. Raloxifene is a type of medication called a Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulator, or SERM. The effects of Raloxifene have been shown to be similar to estrogen, including an increase in bone mass and lower cholesterol. However, the SERMs do not have the same effects on the uterine lining, and therefore do not need to be combined with a progesterone. Furthermore, there is evidence that Raloxifene may decrease the risk of breast cancer.4. Hormonal replacement therapy, or HRT, not only helps maintain, but it can increase bone mass after menopause. Multiple studies have shown the benefits of estrogen therapy, including a lower risk of osteoporosis and fractured bones. In addition, other benefits of estrogen replacement in the postmenopausal patient include lower cholesterol, decreased risk of colon cancer, and fewer postmenopausal symptoms.HRT was shown to increase the risk of uterine cancer, but this risk is eliminated when the estrogen is combined with progesterone. There have been studies showing an increase risk of breast cancer in some study populations. Patients on HRT have also shown a slightly increased risk of developing blood clots and strokes.References1. Khan AW, Khan A: Anabolic agents: a new chapter in the management of osteoporosis. J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2006 Mar;28(3):136-41.2. Jupsin I, Collette J, Henrotin Y, et al: Strontium ranelate. Curr Opin Investig Drugs. Apr;6(4):435-44, 2005.3. Fernandez-Garcia D, Alonso G, Munoz-Torres M: Anabolic therapy of osteoporosis. Med Clin (Barc). 2005 Sep 17;125(9):341-5.4. Marie PJ. Strontium as therapy for osteoporosis. Curr Opin Pharmacol. Sept 2005.5. Reginster JY, Sarlet N, Lejeune E, Leonori L: Strontium ranelate: a new treatment for postmenopausal osteoporosis with a dual mode of action.Curr Osteoporos Rep. Mar;3(1):30-4, 2005.6. Roux C, Reginster JY, Fechtenbaum J, et al: Vertebral fracture risk reduction with strontium ranelate in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis is independent of baseline risk factors. J Bone Miner Res. 2006 Apr;21(4):536-42. Epub 2006 Apr 5.7. Marie, P.J., and Hott, M. Short-term effects of fluoride and strontium on bone formation and resorption in the mouse. Metabolism, 1986, 35:547-551.8. Marie, P.J., Skoryna, S.C., Pivon, R.J., et al: Histomorphometry of bone changes in stable strontium therapy. In: Trace substances in environmental health XIX, edited by D.D. Hemphill, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri, 1985, 193-208.9. Meunier, P.J., Slosman, D.O., Delmas, P.D., et al: Strontium ranelate: dose-dependent effects in established postmenopausal vertebral osteoporosis—a 2-year randomized placebo controlled trial. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, May 2002; 87(5):2060-6.10. Meunier, P.J., Roux, C., Seeman, E., et al: The effects of strontium ranelate on the risk of vertebral fracture in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis, N Engl J Med, 2004, Jan 29;350(5):459-68.11. Skoryna, S.C., 1981. Effects of oral supplementation with stable strontium. Can Med Assoc J, 125: 703-712.12. Gaby, A.R. Preventing and Reversing Osteoporosis, Prima Publishing, Rocklin, CA, 1994.13. Henrotin Y., Labasse A., Zheng S.X., et al: Strontium ranelate increases cartilage matrix formation. J Bone Miner Res, 2001, Feb; 16(2):299-308.14. Hall, D.A. The Ageing of Connective Tissue, Academic Press, San Francisco, 1976.15. Reginster, J.Y., Deroisy, R., Dougados, M., et al: Prevention of early postmenopausal bone loss by strontium ranelate: the randomized, two-year, double-masked, dose-ranging, placebo-controlled PREVOS trial. Osteoporos Int, 2002, Dec;13(12): 925-31.16. Simon LS. Osteoporosis. Clin Geriatr Med. Aug;21(3):603-29, viii.,2005.17. McCaslin, F.E., Jr., and Janes, J.M. The effect of strontium lactate in the treatment of osteoporosis. Proc Staff Meetings Mayo Clin, 1959, 34:329-334.

Nutritional Factors in Osteoporosis

The incidence of osteoporosis increases with age, and is develops at an earlier age in woman than in men. About 55 % of Americans, women more so than men, are at risk of developing osteoporosis. This disease is characterized by a demineralization of the bones, which become porous and fragile, this causing a higher susceptibility to fractures. 

Bone is largely calcium in nature, but it is only now becoming more obvious that calcium intake is but one of many nutritional concerns that must be addressed in order to effectively treat osteoporosis. 

FACT #1: The human adult requires approximately 200 mg of elemental calcium per day, requiring a nutritional allowance is approximately 1,000 mg per day. Too much calcium causes malabsorption of other nutrients. With calcium intake, more may be less. 

FACT #2: Taking a properly balanced mineral supplement minimizes the danger of taking too much calcium. 

FACT #3: Most commercially available vitamin/mineral supplements are worthless because they present the minerals in a poorly absorbed, inorganic form. It is better that you should keep your money in your pocket than to purchase this junk. 

FACT #4: Phosphoric acid intake, in the form of carbonated soft-drinks can hasten the development of osteoporosis. 

FACT #5: GI bacteria are important to the production of Vitamin K-2. Antibiotics kill off the ‘good bacteria’ right along with the pathogenic bacteria. Loose use of antibiotics alter GI flora, crippling our ability to get Vitamin K-2. 

FACT #6: Taking the wrong form or formulation of Vitamin K, or Vitamin K-2 is worthless in therapeutic benefit. 

FACT #7: Vitamin D-3 supplementation reduces the risk of breast cancer, prostate and colon cancers by as much as 50%, and reduces the risk of developing multiple sclerosis (MS) by as much as 40%. 

Other Important Nutrients 

However, there are other vitamins and minerals needed for metabolic processes related to bone, including manganese, copper, boron, iron, zinc, vitamin A, vitamin C, and the B vitamins. The diet must be sufficient in balanced protein as well as balanced with the appropriate fats and oils. 

Vitamin K-2 is member of a lesser known vitamin group. Vitamin K-2 stimulates bone formation by way of hormone-regulation, and Vitamin K-2 reduces the incidence of vertebral fractures, despite having only modest direct effects on the bone mineral density. Vitamins K-1 and K-3 are inactive in this regard. 

Vitamin K-2 is found in certain vegetables, but it is absorbed best if ingested simultaneously with butter. Further, the production of Vitamin K-2 is accomplished through ‘normal’ gastro-intestinal bacteria. 

NOTE WELL: Supplementation of vitamin K-2 can prevent the development of osteoporosis and reduce the risk of lumbar compression fractures from osteoporosis. 

Vitamin D-3 Cholecalciferol (Vitamin D-3) is necessary for the absorption of calcium from the gut as well as for deposition of calcium in the bone. Vitamin D-3 deficiency leads to Osteoporosis. 

Vitamin D-3 is really is not a vitamin, at all, but it is a hormone. Its metabolic product, calcitrol has genetic receptors in over 200 genes in the human body, and vitamin D deficiency is a major factor in the pathology of at least 17 varieties of cancer as well as heart disease, stroke, hypertension, autoimmune diseases, diabetes, depression, chronic pain, osteoarthritis, osteoporosis, muscle weakness, muscle wasting, birth defects, and periodontal disease.

Deficiencies in zinc, magnesium, manganese, strontium, vanadium and chromium, result in many disease states ranging from obesity and diabetes to Alzheimer’s disease and cancer. To this end, I find it easiest to start my patients on a balanced mineral supplement, separate and distinct from the vitamin and hormonal supplement requirements. This permits adjustment for age, gender, and disease state. If these products were presented in one capsule or packet formulation, customization would be difficult if not impossible. 


Bone is a dynamic organ system. Physiologic forces promote bone deposition and production, while others promote re-absorption and destruction. Nutritional influences are extremely important, both in positive and negative terms. It takes a wide variety of essential substances, mineral, vitamin, protein, and hormonal to maintain the health and integrity of each and every organ system, including the musculoskeletal system.

Melatonin and Osteoporosis

Melatonin has been shown to stimulate cells called osteoblasts that promote bone growth. Since melatonin levels may be lower in some older individuals such as postmenopausal women, current studies are investigating whether decreased melatonin levels contribute to the development of osteoporosis, and whether treatment with melatonin can help prevent this condition. Melatonin is useful not only in the treatment of sleep disorders, but it is useful in cancer prevention, osteoporosis and, as an adjuvant for weight loss. 

Melatonin's therapeutic potential is underestimated because of its wide variety of functional roles and mechanism(s) of action are complex and varied. Melatonin is a chronobiotic agent secreted from the pineal gland during the hours of darkness. Melatonin modulates metabolic and cardiovascular physiology as well as bone metabolism and immune function and detoxification of chemical agents and cancer reduction. 

Melatonin levels decrease with age. This decrease in plasma melatonin levels observed in humans during late adulthood may further enhance susceptibility to osteoporosis. 

Therapeutic dosages of melatonin seem to be be related to age, gender and co-administration of pain killers. Women need more melatonin than men, opiate users need more melatonin than non-opiate users. To make it even more interesting, individuals with gastrointestinal disorders need substantially more melatonin, as well. 

The rule of thumb that I use is: 

Ages 10 to 21, starting dose 1 mg for boys, 3 mg for girls. 

Ages 21 to 60, starting dose 3 mg for men, 6 mg for women. 

For patients taking opiates, and for those patients with GI absorption or motility disorders, 10 mg for both women and men, anticipate 20 mg in women taking opiates.

Products for Osteoporosis

Osteoporosis 10 Minute Audio Lectures

10 Minute Audio Lectures

Videos on Osteoporosis

What Causes Osteoporosis?

Dr. Oz - 3 Ways to Help Prevent Osteoporosis

Foods to Help Prevent Osteoporosis

Prunes for Osteoporosis